History of Mexico.

Ancient civilizations.

The first settled tribes on the territory of Mexico appeared in the middle of the first millennium BC. In the XII-V centuries BC. A culture of the Olmecs emerged and prospered, which influenced later civilizations. In the IV-XI centuries, the so-called "classical civilizations of Mexico" developed practically simultaneously: the Zapotecs in Oaxaca, the Totonacs in the territory of the present state of Veracruz, the cultures of Teotihuacan and Maya in southern Mexico and Guatemala. After the Toltecs came from the north in the 8th century, most civilizations were destroyed. Maya was conquered by them, and by the 11th century a Mayan Toltec state with the capital Chichen Itza was established on Yukotan. In the XII century, the state of the Toltecs was destroyed by the following nomads from the north, among which were the Aztecs. In 1325, the Aztecs founded their capital, Tenochtitlan, on the islands of Lake Texcoco, from which Mexico's history leads. The Aztec empire extended to the south to Oaxaca, eastward to the Gulf of Mexico, to the west - to Michoacan. It was a militant civilization, which erected a cult of war and mass human sacrifices. At the same time, the people of Latin America did not know the wheel.

The conquest of Cortez.

The development of the Aztec civilization was interrupted by the invasion of the Spanish conquistadors. For the first time, Europeans landed in Mexico in 1511 after a shipwreck near the Yucatán Peninsula. Among the survivors was Geronimo de Aguilar, who learned the Maya language and then became an interpreter for Cortez. Hernan Cortez was to lead in 1519 the third expedition of the Governor of Cuba Diego Velasquez to Mexico, but at the last moment was removed from command. After that, he sailed on 11 ships to Mexico and declared himself captain-general. Landed on the coast of Yucatan, Cortes burned ships to stop desertion. Cleverly using the contradictions in the Aztec empire, attracting various allies, Cortez in 1521 captured Tenochtitlan and conquered the Aztecs. In 1522, the emperor of Spain, Charles V, approved Cortez as captain-general and appointed him governor of the conquered lands.

Spanish colony.

In 1535, the vice-kingdom of New Spain was created, which included Mexico. The viceroy was the personal representative of the Spanish monarch in the New World. With the Spaniards, the country's economy was based on agriculture and mining. The Spaniards began to grow wheat, sugar cane, olives, citrus. A significant influence on the Indians was the Catholic Church. In the 18th century, under the influence of the ideas of enlightenment in Europe, the Bourbons, ruling in Spain, carried out administrative and economic reforms aimed at liberalizing the economy with the centralization of power.

War for independence.

The XIX century began with Napoleonic wars and occupation of Spain. Under the influence of this, as well as the war for independence in the United States, Mexico began the movement for independence. It was headed not by the political elite of the colony (Creoles - white, born in America), but by the indigenous population from the working regions of the country. The uprising began on September 16, 1810, and this day is now celebrated as the Independence Day of Mexico. The rebels were poorly organized and the Spaniards, with the support of the Creoles, almost completely defeated them. From 1815 to 1820 the struggle for independence passed to the level of guerrilla action. But in 1820 after the victory of the revolution in Spain, the Creole elite decided to take the side of the fighters for independence. At the beginning of 1821 the army joined forces with the insurgents and reached practically Mexico without resistance. The capital was occupied on September 27, and 28 independent Mexico was proclaimed, based on the "three guarantees": the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, the equality of Creoles and Spaniards, the preservation of the privileges of the Catholic Church.

XIX century.

After the war for independence, a period of instability began in the country. Already in 1822 in Mexico, the monarchy was overthrown, and under the Constitution of 1823 it was declared a federal republic, but after that the government was replaced almost every year, often with the help of the military. In 1833 Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana came to power, who ruled the country for 22 years. He provided the country with political stability and economic growth, but because of foreign policy mistakes and the war with the United States, Mexico lost nearly two-thirds of its territory in 1848. In 1855 Santa Ana was overthrown and in the country again entered a period of instability. Because of the economic crisis in 1861, Mexico announced the suspension of payment of debts, which led to the Anglo-French-Spanish intervention. First, in 1862, May 5, Mexicans defeated the French at the Battle of Pueblo and this day became a national holiday. But already in 1863 Napoleon III captured Mexico and erected Maximilian Habsburg to the throne. After the withdrawal of the French troops in 1866, he was almost immediately deposed. At the end of XIX century. Dictator Porfirio Diaz (ruled in 1876-1910) used wasteful financial incentives to attract foreign investors who began to develop the oil fields of Mexico and built railroads, highways, port facilities, telegraph lines and power transmission systems. This caused rapid economic development and the growth of the middle class, but at the same time, political freedoms and rights of Indians and Mestizos were severely curtailed.

Revolution and the Constitution of 1917.

The movement for the return of land to the peasants and against the economic dominance of foreigners led to the outbreak of the 1910 revolution, which overthrew Díaz. But the revolutionaries could not keep the power, which then passed from one ruler to another. The US then adhered to the policy of non-interference, then sent troops to Mexico. In the years 1916-17. The last invasion attempt took place - the expeditionary corps commanded by General Pershing met the fierce resistance of the Mexicans and was forced to retreat.

In 1914 the next revolutionaries led by Venustiano Carranza came to power, which stabilized the situation for several years. The main result of the Mexican revolution was the adoption of the Constitution of Mexico in 1917, which continues to this day. Although its text basically repeated the previous Constitution of 1857, the most revolutionary changes are the declaration of mineral wealth, land and water by national property; The right to free primary education; A description of the principles of agrarian reform and labor legislation. In 1920, after the next uprising, the generals Obregon, Adolfo de la Wyerta and Plutarko Elias Kales came to power, who began to implement the ideals of the revolution. Thanks to this, in the country in the 1920s, a cultural upswing called the "Mexican Renaissance" began.

In the 30s the agrarian reform was successfully carried out, and by 1940 more than half of the land was in the possession of collective peasant farms. At the same time, because of the policy of nationalization of the subsoil, there were constant conflicts with the United States related to their oil-producing companies. Countries several times were on the brink of war, and only the coming to power of Franklin Roosevelt and the policy of good-neighborliness that he proclaimed softened relations between countries. In 1938, Mexico nationalized American and British oil companies, and this conflict with the US was settled only in 1942.

The second half of XX century.

In the Second World War, Mexico came out on the side of the anti-Hitler coalition. Thanks to financial and technological assistance from the US, Mexico modernized industry and transport infrastructure. In 1946, the civilian president Miguel Alemán came to power. With it, programs began to modernize industry, develop agrarian technologies, and public projects were launched. This led to economic growth, which then gave way to a crisis of the 1950s. By the mid-sixties, thanks to agrarian reforms in Mexico, economic growth resumed. But because of a poorly organized social system and rapid population growth, social tension has intensified in the country. In October 1968, a student demonstration was shot in Mexico City. In the same year, Mexico hosted the Olympic Games, and in 1970 - the World Cup.

In the late 70's in Mexico were discovered large oil fields. For several years, the country tripled oil production, which led to a boom and the growth of debts under the guarantee of future revenues from the sale of oil. But in 1981, oil prices fell, and in 1982, Mexico was unable to pay its debts. The government was forced to spend 75% devaluation of the peso, to nationalize banks and cut government spending. The country entered a period of economic depression that lasted almost 10 years. In 1994, the free trade agreement in North America between the United States, Canada and Mexico entered into force, which helped liberalize the country's economy.

On September 19, 1985, near the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the strongest earthquakes in the history of America happened with 8.1 points. Despite the great distance from the epicenter, the Mexican capital of Mexico, located on an ancient lake, suffered very badly. The country managed to quickly repair the damage inflicted and already in 1986 took another World Cup soccer.

In 2006, a presidential election with a slight advantage was won by conservative representative Felipe Calderon. One of the main directions of his domestic policy was the fight against drug cartels, which possess huge economic and armed force.


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